CERN Accelerating science

CLOUD Papers

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2017-11-08
06:21
Insight into Acid–Base Nucleation Experiments by Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Positive, Negative, and Neutral Clusters / Bianchi, Federico (PSI, Villigen) ; Praplan, Arnaud P (Helsinki U.) ; Sarnela, Nina (Helsinki U.) ; Dommen, Josef (PSI, Villigen) ; Kürten, Andreas (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Ortega, Ismael K (Lille U.) ; Schobesberger, Siegfried (Helsinki U.) ; Junninen, Heikki (Helsinki U.) ; Simon, Mario (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Tröstl, Jasmin (PSI, Villigen) et al.
We investigated the nucleation of sulfuric acid together with two bases (ammonia and dimethylamine), at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. The chemical composition of positive, negative, and neutral clusters was studied using three Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers: two were operated in positive and negative mode to detect the chamber ions, while the third was equipped with a nitrate ion chemical ionization source allowing detection of neutral clusters. [...]
2014 - 10 p. - Published in : Environ. Sci. Technol. 48 (2014) 13675-13684 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-11-04
11:33
Causes and importance of new particle formation in the present-day and preindustrial atmospheres / Gordon, Hamish (Leeds U.) ; Kirkby, Jasper (CERN ; Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Baltensperger, Urs (PSI, Villigen) ; Bianchi, Federico (Helsinki U.) ; Breitenlechner, Martin (Harvard U. (main)) ; Curtius, Joachim (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Dias, Antonio (CERN) ; Dommen, Josef (PSI, Villigen) ; Donahue, Neil M (Carnegie Mellon U.) ; Dunne, Eimear M (Kuopio U.) et al.
New particle formation has been estimated to produce around half of cloud-forming particlesin the present-day atmosphere, via gas-to-particle conversion. Here we assess the importance of newparticle formation (NPF) for both the present-day and the preindustrial atmospheres [...]
2017 - 22 p. - Published in : J. Geophys. Res. 122 (2017) 8739-8760 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-11-04
11:33
Effect of ions on sulfuric acid-water binary particle formation: 1. Theory for kinetic- and nucleation-type particle formation and atmospheric implications / Merikanto, Joonas (Helsinki Inst. of Phys. ; Finnish Meteorological Inst.) ; Duplissy, Jonathan (Helsinki U. ; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.) ; Määttänen, Anni (Versailles U., Velizy ; LATMOS, Guyancourt ; Paris U., IV) ; Henschel, Henning (Helsinki U.) ; Donahue, Neil M (Carnegie Mellon U.) ; Brus, David (Finnish Meteorological Inst.) ; Schobesberger, Siegfried (Helsinki Inst. of Phys.) ; Kulmala, Markku (Helsinki U.) ; Vehkamäki, Hanna (Helsinki Inst. of Phys.)
We derive a version of Classical Nucleation Theory normalized by quantum chemical results on sulfuric acid-water hydration to describe neutral and ion-induced particle formation in the binary sulfuric acid-water system. The theory is extended to treat the kinetic regime where the nucleation free energy barrier vanishes at high sulfuric acid concentrations or low temperatures. [...]
2016 - 16 p. - Published in : J. Geophys. Res. 121 (2016) 1736-1751 External link: Fulltext

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2017-06-13
06:17
On the composition of ammonia–sulfuric-acid ion clusters during aerosol particle formation / Schobesberger, S (Helsinki U.) ; Franchin, A (Helsinki U.) ; Bianchi, F (PSI, Villigen) ; Rondo, L (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Duplissy, J (Helsinki U. ; CERN) ; Kürten, A (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Ortega, I K (Helsinki U. ; PhLAM, Villeneuve d'Ascq) ; Metzger, A (Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Innsbruck) ; Schnitzhofer, R (Innsbruck U.) ; Almeida, J (CERN) et al.
The formation of particles from precursor vapors is an important source of atmospheric aerosol. Research at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) facility at CERN tries to elucidate which vapors are responsible for this new-particle formation, and how in detail it proceeds. [...]
2015 - 24 p. - Published in : Atmosph. Chem. Phys. 15 (2015) 55-78 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-06-13
06:17
Elemental composition and clustering behaviour of α-pinene oxidation products for different oxidation conditions / Praplan, A P (Helsinki U.) ; Schobesberger, S (Helsinki U.) ; Bianchi, F (PSI, Villigen ; Zurich, ETH) ; Rissanen, M P (Helsinki U.) ; Ehn, M (Helsinki U.) ; Jokinen, T (Helsinki U.) ; Junninen, H (Helsinki U.) ; Adamov, A (Helsinki U.) ; Amorim, A (SIM, University of Lisbon ; Beira Interior U., Covilha) ; Dommen, J (PSI, Villigen) et al.
This study presents the difference between oxidised organic compounds formed by α-pinene oxidation under various conditions in the CLOUD environmental chamber: (1) pure ozonolysis (in the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenger) and (2) OH oxidation (initiated by nitrous acid (HONO) photolysis by ultraviolet light) in the absence of ozone. We discuss results from three Atmospheric Pressure interface Time-of-Flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometers measuring simultaneously the composition of naturally charged as well as neutral species (via chemical ionisation with nitrate). [...]
2015 - 15 p. - Published in : Atmosph. Chem. Phys. 15 (2015) 4145-4159 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-06-13
06:17
Experimental investigation of ion–ion recombination under atmospheric conditions / Franchin, A (Helsinki U.) ; Ehrhart, S (CERN ; Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Leppä, J (Finnish Meteorological Inst. ; Caltech, Eng. Appl. Sci.) ; Nieminen, T (Helsinki U.) ; Gagné, S (Dalhousie U. ; York U., Canada) ; Schobesberger, S (Helsinki U.) ; Wimmer, D (Helsinki U.) ; Duplissy, J (Helsinki U.) ; Riccobono, F (PSI, Villigen) ; Dunne, E M (Finnish Meteorological Inst.) et al.
We present the results of laboratory measurements of the ion–ion recombination coefficient at different temperatures, relative humidities and concentrations of ozone and sulfur dioxide. The experiments were carried out using the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN, the walls of which are made of conductive material, making it possible to measure small ions. [...]
2015 - 14 p. - Published in : Atmosph. Chem. Phys. 15 (2015) 7203-7216 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-06-13
06:17
Technical Note: Using DEG-CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures / Wimmer, D (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main) ; Helsinki U.) ; Lehtipalo, K (Helsinki U. ; Airmodus Ltd, Helsinki) ; Nieminen, T (Helsinki U.) ; Duplissy, J (Helsinki U.) ; Ehrhart, S (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main) ; CERN) ; Almeida, J (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main) ; CERN) ; Rondo, L (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Franchin, A (Helsinki U.) ; Kreissl, F (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Bianchi, F (PSI, Villigen ; Zurich, ETH) et al.
Over the last few years, several condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of CPCs based on diethylene glycol (DEG) at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. [...]
2015 - 9 p. - Published in : Atmosph. Chem. Phys. 15 (2015) 7547-7555 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-06-13
06:17
Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system / Kürten, A (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Münch, S (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Rondo, L (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Bianchi, F (PSI, Villigen ; Zurich, ETH) ; Duplissy, J (CERN) ; Jokinen, T (Helsinki U.) ; Junninen, H (Helsinki U.) ; Sarnela, N (Helsinki U.) ; Schobesberger, S (Helsinki U.) ; Simon, M (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) et al.
Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. [...]
2015 - 21 p. - Published in : Atmosph. Chem. Phys. 15 (2015) 10701-10721 Fulltext: PDF;

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2017-06-13
06:17
Effect of ions on the measurement of sulfuric acid in the CLOUD experiment at CERN / Rondo, L (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Kürten, A (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Ehrhart, S (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)) ; Schobesberger, S (Helsinki U.) ; Franchin, A (Helsinki U.) ; Junninen, H (Helsinki U.) ; Petäjä, T (Helsinki U.) ; Sipilä, M (Helsinki U.) ; Worsnop, D R (Helsinki U. ; Aerodyne Research, Billerica) ; Curtius, J (Goethe U., Frankfurt (main))
Ternary aerosol nucleation experiments were conducted in the CLOUD chamber at CERN in order to investigate the influence of ions on new particle formation. Neutral and ion-induced nucleation experiments, i.e. [...]
2014 - 11 p. - Published in : Atmosph. Meas. Tech. 7 (2014) 3849-3859 INSPIRE-PUBLIC: PDF;

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2017-06-13
06:17
Modeling the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine-water nanoparticle growth in the CLOUD chamber / Ahlm, L (ACES, Stockholm University) ; Yli-Juuti, T (UEF, Kuopio) ; Schobesberger, S (Helsinki U. ; Washington U., Seattle) ; Praplan, A P (Helsinki U.) ; Kim, J (UEF, Kuopio) ; Tikkanen, O -P (UEF, Kuopio ; Helsinki U.) ; Lawler, M J (UC, Irvine) ; Smith, J N (UEF, Kuopio ; UC, Irvine) ; Tröstl, J (PSI, Villigen) ; Acosta Navarro, J C (ACES, Stockholm University) et al.
Dimethylamine (DMA) has a stabilizing effect on sulfuric acid (SA) clusters, and the SA and DMA molecules and clusters likely play important roles in both aerosol particle formation and growth in the atmosphere. We use the monodisperse particle growth model for acid-base chemistry in nanoparticle growth (MABNAG) together with direct and indirect observations from the CLOUD4 and CLOUD7 experiments in the cosmics leaving outdoor droplets (CLOUD) chamber at CERN to investigate the size and composition evolution of freshly formed particles consisting of SA, DMA, and water as they grow to 20 nm in dry diameter [...]
2016 - 16 p. - Published in : Aerosol Sci. Technol. 50 (2016) 1017-1032

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